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24th International Conference on Neurology and Neurosurgery, will be organized around the theme “Unravel the intriguing conception on neurology and neurosurgery”

neurosurgery2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in neurosurgery2018

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The diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions, disease and disorders involving the central and peripheral nervous system are dealt by a branch of medicine called neurology. Neurology is basically concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system which consists of a complex, sophisticated system including its subdivisions, the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system  that regulates and coordinates body activities. According to the University of California, San Francisco, the number of neurological disorder is heading more than 600, out of which most of the diseases treatment is still under limitations and research is still processing. The Global Burden of Disease study, along with the ongoing international collaborative project between WHO, the World Bank and the Harvard School of Public Health, has come up with the evidence that pinpoints neurological disorders are one of the greatest threats to public health. According to the UN report on neurology, 27 February 2007, nearly one in six of the world’s population, up to 1 billion people, suffer from neurological disorders, from Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, strokes, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy to migraine, brain injuries. By analyzing the Global statistics, it is seen that fifty million people suffer from epilepsy, sixty-two million people suffer from cerebrovascular disease, three hundred and twenty-six million people suffer from migraine, and twenty-four million of the population suffer from Alzheimer disease and other dementias.

According to the WHO report, in terms of the population covered, only one quarter has access to more than one neurologist per 100 000 population, which means median number of neurologists per 100 000 population is also much lower for low-income countries (0.03) compared with high-income countries (2.96).

Clinical and surgical examination which deals with the neurological treatment of specific disorders related to  brainspinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system is termed as neurosurgery. Emergencies like intracranial hemorrhage and neuro trauma are basically involved in most of the neurosurgery. Intracerebral hemorrhage being the main cause of morbidity and mortality, results in affecting between 37 000 and 52 400 patients annually in the United States. By the year 2020, Global Interventional Neurology Market is expected to reach $2,370.4 Million, expected to have a CAGR of 8.4% from 2015 to 2020. Recent advances in surgical technology have meant that the focus of treatment for spinal conditions has progressed towards preservation of normal spinal motion and sparing of structures adjacent to problem areas. Some of the crucial types of neurosurgery includes vascular neurosurgery and endovascular neurosurgery, stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, and epilepsy surgery, brain tumor, oncological neurosurgery, skull base surgery, spinal neurosurgery, peripheral nerve surgery. 

According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on neurology shows that neurological disorders, ranging from epilepsy to Alzheimer disease, from stroke to headache, affect up to one billion people worldwide. An estimated 6.8 million people die every year as a result of neurological disorders. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system. . The disorders include diseases concerned with the central and peripheral nervous system, such as brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, the autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction and muscles. As the global population ages, the impact of neurological disorders will be felt both in developed and developing countries, reaching a significant proportion in countries with a growing percentage of the population over 65 years.

Chronic pain related with tissue injury is termed as neuropathic pain. Neurosurgery plays a huge impact on such neuropathic pain. The impact of nerve fiber injury includes a change in nerve function both at the site of injury and areas around the injury. Nerve pressure or nerve damage after surgery or trauma along with viral infections, cancer, and even vascular malformations, alcoholism, neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and metabolic conditions such as diabetes are the common cause of neuropathic pain. Peripheral neuropathic pain, central neuropathic pain, or mixed (peripheral and central) neuropathic pains are the three basic mechanism of neuropathic pain.

Statistics says that 7- 8% of the European population is affected, out of which 5% of patients are severely traumatized. Anti-epileptics, Antidepressants, Opioids, Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) are the few treatment processes for neuropathic pain.

Neuropathology consists largely of examination of biopsy tissue from the brain and spinal cord to aid in diagnosis of disease. It is an important aspect for neurosurgery.  The subject often confused with neuropathy deals with laboratory analysis of tissue samples for personalized diagnosis or forensic investigations.

Neurological disorder pathogenesis including related neuronal and glial pathology, the Golgi apparatus, RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression, RNA stability, RNA splicing, signal transduction, and the cytoskeleton may come under the part of neuropathology. Research subjects on neurology like developmental neurobiology, developmental neuropathology and biology of pediatric and adult brain tumors are recent additional.

Discectomy or Micro discectomy, Laminectomy, and Laminotomy are the common surgical procedure.

Spinal surgery market on neurology has a high chance of reaching $6.9 billion by 2020. Global spinal surgery devices market is expected to reach $14.8 billion by 2017, with an estimated yearly growth rate of 5.1% in the next five years and in Europe it is expected to reach $2,993.6 million by 2019. Although spinal fusions still hold the largest market share, disc replacements are pushing forward in popularity as they become more available among spine practices. The Millennium Research Group reported that the global spinal non-fusion market would surpass $1.6 billion by 2022, nearly tripling in size from just a few years ago.

 

Neuroanesthesia is one of the specialties under neurosurgery that have contributed tremendously over the years to neuroscience yet it remained non-accredited and supported. Neuroanesthetic management is different from general anesthesia because it can have a major effect on the brain and spinal cord through the control of blood flow, blood pressure and energy consumption of these organs. Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring (SEP Monitoring) and Motor Evoked Potential Monitoring (MEP monitoring) are used as one of the important technique for treatment in spinal cord and brain surgeries.

In general, there is a less than a one percent chance of developing a malignant CNS or brain tumor over the course of one's lifetime. The risk increases once the age increases. Among people under the age of 20, 4.5 per 100,000 persons will be diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor. This very rate rises to 57 per 100,000 persons after age 75. Brain tumors are the second-leading cause of death due to cancer for children and teens under age 20, females under 20 years of age, males under 40 years of age.

The condition when the blood vessel in the brain gets affected, it results to cerebrovascular disorders. Stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, Transient ischemic attack and vascular dementia are few types of cerebrovascular disorder, for which neurosurgery plays a great role.

In United States (U.S.), cerebrovascular disease is the 5th most common cause of death. It caused 41.7 fatalities per 100,000 people, or 133,103 deaths in total. Globally there are 62 million peoples who suffer from cerebrovascular disease each year.

The central nervous system is a highly specialized network which organizes interactions dealing with two major parts which are brain and spinal cord. The CNS is vulnerable to various disorders. Trauma, Infections, Degeneration, Structural defects, Tumors, Blood flow disruption, Autoimmune disorders etc., are the reasons which hinders central nervous system. Statistics reveals that approximately 22 million patients suffer from various forms of central nervous system disorder. According to a new United Nations report on the subject of neurology, 6.8 million people die out of the maladies each year. 

The peripheral nervous system comprises of a network of 43 pairs of motor and sensory nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) to the entire human body. Nerve Injuries, Brachial plexus injury, Foot drop injury, Spinal accessory nerve injury, Traumatic nerve injury are certain massive peripheral nerve injury. Surgical risk factors like compressive dressings or casts, tourniquet inflation, hematoma or abscess formation promote such nervous injury.

 

Catheters and radiology are used in endovascular neurosurgery to diagnose diseases of the central nervous system. Endovascular neurosurgery generally uses tools that pass through the blood vessels to diagnose and treat diseases and conditions which don’t uses open surgery.

Thrombolytic therapy, Endovascular coiling, minimally invasive spine surgery, Cerebral angiography Carotid artery angioplasty/stenting are certain procedures of endovascular neurosurgery. In order to diagnose a vascular disease, Cerebral or Spinal Angiography – D.S.A. (Digital Subtraction Angiography) is performed which is considered as a gold standard investigation.

The study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system is collectively termed as neuroendocrinology. The neuroendocrine system is the mechanism which deals with the hypothalamus that maintains homeostasis, regulating reproduction, metabolism, eating and drinking behavior, energy utilization, osmolality and blood pressure.

Understanding of stimulus-secretion coupling, the augmentation of the treatment of mood symptoms with thyroid hormone, finding of a transthyretin (thyroxine transport) problem is an important portion of neuroendocrinology.

 

People who suffer from brain and nervous system disorders are assisted by Neuroscience Nurse. Monitoring neurological exams, administering medication, and consulting physicians on patient progress are some of their duties. Neuroscience Nurses assists neurosurgery and work in diverse, challenging and rewarding environments, such as hospitals, health care clinics, brain injury units, and intensive rehabilitation units.

These nursing professionals need to be acknowledged about the diagnostic tests as well. CT scans and MRI’s are some of such tests. Neurological nurses also have the idea of understanding how to read and interpret these tests as well.

Novel therapeutics basically deals with the Novel Treatment strategies like Therapeutic Brain stimulation (electric and magnetic), Tau-Based Treatment Strategies in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Anti-amyloid therapy, Comprehensive treatment, Therapeutic dilemmas in multiple sclerosis and Future research directions in Brain disorders. Neurosurgery is such a significant topic that needs to be researched more for further cure and solution.

In order to help physicians confirm or rule out the presence of a neurological disorder or other medical condition, Diagnostic tests and procedures are used as vital tools. Worldwide neuromodulator business market was evaluated at $3.65 Billion in 2015 and estimated to reach $6.20 Billion by 2020 with a CAGR of 11.2%.Certain techniques of neurosurgery such as Chorionic villus sampling, Pre-symptomatic testing, Biomarkers, Molecular diagnostics, Neuroimaging and Human Neuroimaging are commonly used to diagnose. This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one presynaptic neuron is directly influenced by a single postsynaptic partner.  Neuromodulators wind up investing a lot of energy in the cerebrospinal liquid (CSF), affecting (or "regulating") the action of a few different neurons in the cerebrum. Consequently, a few neurotransmitters are likewise thought to be neuromodulators, for example, serotonin and acetylcholine.

 

There are about more than 600 neurological diseases. There are about 248 case reports in intracerebral malignant lymphoma. There are two cases of intracranial subdural hematoma following lumbar puncture are presented. 167 cases of Extradural Hematoma are also there.

Case reports on Neurosurgery and neurology track is made to share scientists, researchers, doctor’s practical experience of new and critical neurological conditions and injuries and to influence young researchers. It enables other researchers to gather knowledge and ideas about new technologies, clinical trials, drug testing and other new aspects on neurology and neurosurgery.